This document explains how to configure Tomas Rokicki's DVIPS
program to use device-inde-pendent, scalable fonts in a PostScript
language file or PDF document to achieve optimal font quality on any
The PostScript language can represent fonts in a number of different formats. PostScript Type 3 fonts can be described as either resolution-specific bitmaps or scalable outlines. PostScript Type 1 fonts are resolution-independent outline fonts that can be quickly rasterized by the font machinery in Adobe PostScript interpreters and software that uses the Adobe Type Manager (ATM) font rasterizer. Type 1 fonts can contain "hints" that tell the font machinery how to most effectively rasterize the font even at low resolutions or small font sizes.
The Computer Modern fonts, commonly used with Donald Knuth's
TeX typesetting language, are typically rendered as fixed-resolution
bitmaps (in TeX's PK format) even though they were derived from
device-independent descriptions in Knuth's METAFONT language. A
driver pro-gram translates TeX's DVI file and PK fonts to a
printer-specific font format for printing.
The default behavior of DVIPS 1 is to convert the PK fonts into
Type 3 bitmapped fonts when creating a PostScript language file. The
resulting PostScript language file thus contains resolu-tion- specific
Type 3 bitmapped fonts that are not device- and resolution-independent
like scal-able Type 1 fonts.
If the PostScript language file is sent to a specific printer, device
dependence may not be a problem. If the file is sent to printers of
varying resolutions, however, this may be a problem because the fonts
will not print at the native resolution of the printer. Sending a file
with 300 dot-per-inch (dpi) fonts to a 600 dpi printer produces output
no better than that of a 300 dpi printer.
Similar problems occur when the PostScript language file is converted
to Adobe Portable Doc-ument Format (PDF). Since a PDF file is designed to
be viewed and printed on a wide range of devicesincluding both computer
monitors and printers of varying resolutions, it works most effectively
with scalable outline fonts.
Although Adobe Acrobat Distiller will convert a PostScript language
file with bitmapped fonts into PDF, these fonts display slowly and do not
render well on screen in the resulting PDF file. But, if you use Type 1
versions of the fonts you will get a compact file format that delivers
the optimal font quality when used with any display screen, zoom mode,
or printer resolution.
USING TYPE 1 FONTS WITH DVIPS
The default behavior of Rokicki's DVIPS is to embed Type 3 bitmapped fonts.
You can configure DVIPS to not embed bitmapped fonts by performing
1 Create a font map file to identify the fonts you do not want to embed.
2 Tell DVIPS how to reference the font map file.
You can tell DVIPS to use Type 1 fonts automatically for all of your
DVIPS jobs or manually on a per-job basis depending on how you reference
the font map file. Your system administrator can also configure DVIPS
to automatically use Type 1 fonts globally for all users.
In each case you have the option to replace the Type 3 bitmapped
fonts with references to the Type 1 fonts or to actually embed the code
for the Type 1 fonts. The former creates smaller files, but requires
the fonts to be available when the PostScript language file is printed
or dis-tilled. If the fonts are embedded in the PostScript language
file, you don't need to worry about whether the fonts are present in
the printer or available to Acrobat Distiller, but youll have a larger
PostScript language file and you may encounter memory limitations in
certain Post-Script implementations.
You need access to the Type 1 versions of the fonts you use in your
documents in order to embed the font information. Type 1 versions
of the Computer Modern fonts are available in the BaKoMa collection
(see "References and Resources") and from commercial type
Before distributing files with embedded fonts, consult the license
agreement for your font package. Some typeface vendors do not allow
you to embed complete fonts into a PDF or Post-Script language file for
public distribution. Contact the type vendor for more information. You
may embed all fonts included in the Adobe Type library.
CREATING THE FONT MAP FILE
To tell DVIPS to use Type 1 fonts rather than Type 3 fonts, you first need to create a font substitution, or font map file, that lists the names of the fonts that DVIPS should not embed as bitmaps.
For example, to instruct DVIPS to not embed the standard Computer
Modern fonts, the font map file would look as follows:
This example assumes that the PostScript language names of the fonts
(as referenced by the PostScript language interpreter's findfont operator)
are identical to the names of the TFM files used by TeX (as is the case
with the BaKoMa fonts).
If the PostScript language name for the font differs from the name
used by TeX, use the font map file to create aliases to map the TeX name
to the PostScript language name of the font. For example, if the Type
1 version of the CM fonts use upper case names, the font map would look
If you use other PostScript language fonts you can also use this
alias feature to map the names of the PostScript language fonts to the
names of the TeX font files, such as:
Here the font file known to TeX as hlvr (the name of the TFM file)
refers to the PostScript language font Helvetica, hlvo refers to
Helvetica-Oblique, and so on.
In the previous three examples, only the names of the fonts are
embedded in the PostScript language file, so the fonts must be available
to the PostScript language interpreter when the file is printed or
To embed the code for the Type 1 font in the PostScript language
file, add "<" followed by the path to the font file in
either PFB or PFA format.
For example, if you have PFB versions of the CM fonts in the directory
/usr/local/lib/tex/fonts/type1/, your font map file would look like:
How the font substitutions specified in your font map file affect your
DVIPS jobs depends on how you reference the font map file, as described
in the next section.
REFERENCING THE FONT MAP FILE
You can configure DVIPS to make these font substitutions automatically for all of your DVIPS jobs or manually on a per-job basis. Your system administrator can also configure DVIPS to automatically use Type 1 fonts globally for all users by placing the font map entries described above in the DVIPS system-wide psfonts.map file.
Using a Font Map File Automatically for All Jobs
To configure DVIPS to automatically perform the font substitutions for all jobs, create a font map file and then create a file in your home directory named .dvipsrc containing the line:
where fontmap.map is the name of your font map file. (Make sure the
p parameter is lowercase.)
With some implementations of DVIPS you may need to specify the
full path to the font map file. For example, if your home directory is
/users/kmw/ and your font map file is called embedCM.map, you would add
the following line to your .dvipsrc file:
The plus sign (+) before the name of the font map file indicates that
the font map file is refer-enced after the system-wide psfonts.map file
and any assignments in your font map file are in addition to (and will
override) those found in the psfonts.map file.
Now you can run DVIPS as usual:
The font substitutions in your font map file will be used for all
your DVIPS jobs.
Using a Font Map File On a Per-Job Basis
If you want to frequently switch between font map files, rather than editing your .dvipsrc file each time, you can create one or more printer-specificor, in this case, "output-specific" configuration files named config.printername that tell DVIPS to reference different font map files. You can then reference a specific configuration file by using the uppercase P parameter with the DVIPS command:
dvips -P printername dvifilename
For example, you can have a file CM.map like the first three examples
that only places refer-ences to the fonts in the PostScript language
file and another file embedCM.map that includes the font code as in the
last example shown.
Then create a file named config.distiller containing a line with the
lowercase p parameter that specifies the file CM.map:
and a file named config.distillembed with the line that specifies
the file embedCM.map:
In some implementations of DVIPS you may need to give the complete
path to the font map file.
The following command line would then create a PostScript language
file containing only the names of the fonts:
dvips -P distiller dvifilename
The following command line would similarly create a PostScript
language file with the actual font code embedded in the PostScript
dvips -P distillembed dvifilename
Depending on how your implementation of DVIPS is configured, DVIPS
may look for the config.printername file only in the current directory
or in both the current directory and your home directory. If you want
to change how DVIPS looks for configuration files, you can set the
TEXCONFIG environment variable as described in the "Environment
Variables" section of the DVIPS documentation.
CONVERTING A POSTSCRIPT LANGUAGE FILE TO PDF USING ACROBAT DISTILLER
Once you've created a PostScript language file, use Acrobat Distiller to convert the PostScript language file to a PDF file. For more detailed information, refer to the Acrobat Distiller Online Guide.
If you embedded the Type 1 font code in the PostScript language file
created by DVIPS, you can simply distill the PostScript language file
as usual. If you embedded only references to the Type 1 fonts, you need
to make sure Acrobat Distiller has access to the PostScript language
fonts. See "Giving Acrobat Distiller access to fonts" in the
Acrobat Distiller Online Guide.
FORCING FONT SUBSETTING
Acrobat Distiller 2.1 provides configuration settings to enable both font embedding and font subsetting in a PDF file. For more information on these options see Embedding fonts in the Acrobat Distiller Online Guide.
Acrobat Distiller's default maximum subsetting threshold is 10%. In
other words, if more than 10% of the characters in a font are included
in the document, the entire font is embedded in the document.
You may want to change this setting to a higher value. This can produce
a smaller PDF file and you may be required by the font vendor's license
to subset the font if you plan to distribute the PDF file (contact the
font vendor for details).
You can change the threshold for font embedding by adding
a line to the Example.ps file in Acrobat Distiller's startup
directory. In UNIX, the file is called DStartup.ps and is located in
For example, to change the embedding threshold to the maximum value
of 99 percent, open Example.ps with a text editor and add the following
line to the file:
<< /SubsetFonts true /MaxSubsetPct 99 >> setdistillerparams
Although it doesn't matter where in the file you put this line, it's
a good idea to place it in the "FONT EMBEDDING" section.
Save this file, restart Acrobat Distiller, and create the PDF file as
usual. In most cases, all of the embedded fonts will now be subsetted.
If you later want to restore the original default setting, simply
comment out this line by preced-ing it with a percent sign (%) and
restart Acrobat Distiller.
CHECKING THE PDF FILE
If you've been using Type 3 bitmapped fonts in your PDF files, you'll see the difference the Type 1 fonts make as soon as you open the file in Acrobat Reader or Exchange. With scalable Type 1 fonts the file displays more quickly and can be viewed in any zoom mode with no loss of font quality. Furthermore, you can print the PDF file on any printer and the fonts will be rendered at the maximum resolution of the printer.
If your document uses fonts that are not referenced in your font map
file (but are available on your system in the standard TeX PK format)
it may still include Type 3 fonts. The BaKoMa col-lection, for example,
does not have the manfnt font typically used to typeset the METAFONT
logo, and documents using this font will continue to include this as a
Although the differences between the Type 3 bitmap fonts and the
Type 1 fonts are usually apparent upon inspection, you can check which
fonts are used in a PDF file by selecting File > Document Info >
Fonts in Acrobat Reader or Exchange. From the Font Info window click
List All Fonts.
The Type column will display whether the fonts are Type 1 or Type
3. If you're using DVIPS the Type 3 bitmapped fonts will also be named
T1, T2, etc., while Type 1 fonts will display their correct names, such
as cmr10, cmbx10, and so on. Fonts that have a six-character prefix
added to the font name (such as KICOLA+cmr7) are Type 1 fonts that have
REFERENCES AND RESOURCES
Files The BaKoMa collection, containing Type 1 versions of the Computer
Modern (CM) fonts (in PFB format), is available from the comprehensive
TeX Archive Network (CTAN)
Tomas Rokicki's DVIPS program is available from the comprehensive
TeX Archive Network (CTAN) at:
Included with DVIPS is the TeX source for the DVIPS documentation,
"DVIPS: A TeX Driver." This document contains detailed
information on the features and configuration settings of DVIPS.
TeX is described in The TeXbook by Donald Knuth, published by
Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
The TeX program and related tools and information are available online from the comprehen-sive TeX Archive Network (CTAN) at:
TERMS AND CONCEPTS
BaKoMa fonts: The BaKoMa Fonts Collection from Basil K. Malyshev includes Type 1 versions of the basic Computer Modern fonts. The BaKoMa fonts are available from the comprehensive TeX Archive Network (CTAN) at:
DVI: The "device-independent" file format used by TeX as
an intermediate file between the TeX source code and a printer-specific
output file. The TeX program converts TeX source code into a DVI file. A
driver program then converts the DVI file into another format for viewing
or printing. DVIPS, for example, converts a DVI file into a PostScript
language file which can then be printed on a PostScript language printer
or converted to PDF using Acrobat Distiller.
DVIPS: A DVI print driver written by Tomas Rokicki that converts
a TeX DVI file into a Post-Script file. DVIPS is available from the
comprehensive TeX Archive Network (CTAN)
PDF: The "Portable Document Format" (PDF) is the native
file format of the Adobe Acrobat family of products. The goal of PDF
is to enable users to easily and reliably exchange and view electronic
documents independent of the environment in which they were created. The
imag-ing model underlying PDF is based on Adobe PostScript language,
but contains additional fea-tures to display, navigate, and annotate
The PDF file format is documented in the Portable Document Format Reference Manual by Tim Bienz and Richard Cohn, published by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Adobe Systems' Technical Note 5156, "Updates to the Portable
Document Format" contains additional information and is available
on the Adobe web site at:
PFA: "Printer Font ASCII" -- an ASCII (text-only) encoding
of a PostScript Type 1 font.
PFB: "Printer Font Binary" -- a binary encoding of a
PostScript Type 1 font
PK Font: A bitmapped font in TeXs "packed" format. Although
many PK fonts are derived from device-independent descriptions in
the METAFONT language, a PK font is a device- and resolution-specific
bitmap. When a driver program (such as DVIPS) converts a TeX DVI file
to a printer-specific format, it typically converts the PK font into
a printer-specific bitmapped font format (such as a PostScript Type 3
TeX: A typesetting language written by Donald Knuth.
TFM: A TeX font metric (TFM) file contains information about a font's
character widths, liga-tures, and kerning pairs (but not the actual
shapes of the fonts, which are typically stored in a PK file). The TFM
file is used by the TeX program to typeset the document and create a
TeX DVI file.
1 The information on DVIPS is based primarily on DVIPS version 5.55
for Unix. Other versions may differ -- check the documentation provided
with your version of DVIPS for more information.
Adobe, the Adobe logo, Adobe Acrobat, Adobe Type Manager, ATM, and
PostScript are trademarks and Adobe is a service mark of Adobe Systems
Incorporated which may be registered in certain jurisdictions. All other
products mentioned in this document are trademarked or copyrighted by
their respective owners. Copyright 1996 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All
Copyright © 1996 Adobe Systems